Endometriosis - Causes, Symptoms, Stages, Treatment | ONP Hospitals
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Endometriosis

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    Overview

    There are many painful symptoms of endometriosis, which is characterized by the growth of tissue outside of the uterus that resembles the endometrium, the tissue that usually lines the interior of the uterus. When you have endometriosis, it usually affects your ovaries as well as your fallopian tubes and the tissue that lines your pelvic chambers. Endometrial-like tissue may sometimes be seen outside of the pelvic region.

    Endometriosis causes endometrial-like tissue to grow, break down, and bleed like normal endometrial tissue throughout each menstrual cycle. The problem is that this tissue can’t leave your body since it has no other route out. Cysts known as endometriomas may develop when endometriosis spreads to the ovaries. Irritated tissue may form scar tissue and adhesions, which are bands of fibrous tissue that cling together in the pelvis and organs.

    Endometriosis may be painful, even debilitating, particularly when it manifests itself during menstruation. Infertility issues may also arise. Fortunately, there are effective methods of therapy.

    Everything You Need To Know About Endometriosis

    What is Endometriosis?

    Endometriosis occurs when the lining of a woman’s uterus invades into the uterus and extrauterine pelvic tissues. 

    During your menstruation, this tissue behaves much like normal uterine tissue: After the cycle, it will splinter and bleed like a rag doll. This blood, on the other hand, has nowhere to go. Nearby tissues may become inflamed or swollen as well. Scar tissue and lesions may be present.

    The ovaries are the most frequent site of endometriosis.

    Causes

    Endometriosis’s precise etiology is unknown, however, several theories include the following:

    • Retrograde menstruation: As the name implies, menstrual blood including endometrial cells returns to the pelvic cavity via the oviducts during retrograde menstruation. They adhere to the walls of the pelvis and organ surfaces of the pelvis, where endometrial cells continue to proliferate, thicken and flow throughout the menstrual cycle.
    • Transformation of peritoneal cells: The induction hypothesis holds that hormones or immunological factors encourage peritoneal cell transformation into endometrial-like cells on the inner wall of your belly.
    • Embryonic cell transformation: Hormones like estrogen, which are present in embryonic cells at the beginning of their development, have the potential to convert them into endometrial-like cell implants in women throughout puberty.
    • Surgical scar implantation: Endometrial cells may adhere to a surgical incision after a procedure like a hysterectomy or C-section.
    • Endometrial cell transport: Endometrial cells may be transported to different regions of the body through the blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system.
    • Immune system disorder: Lack of recognition and eradication of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus may be due to an immune system dysfunction.

    Symptoms

    Symptoms may include the following:

    • Having back pains when pregnant
    • Severe cramps during menstruation
    • Pain while pooping or urinating, particularly around the time of the month
    • Unusual or excessive menstrual bleeding
    • Your feces or pee contain blood
    • Constipation or diarrhea
    • Sex that is excruciating to endure
    • Irritable bowel syndrome
    • Finding it difficult to get pregnant

    Endometriosis Stages

    Endometriosis has four phases, according to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine.

    • Stage I (minimal): Only a few tiny sores are visible but there are no scars.
    • Stage II (mild): More lesions have appeared, but no scar tissue has formed. Only around 2 centimeters of your abdominal wall is affected.
    • Stage III (moderate): There is a chance that the lesions will get deep. Your ovaries or fallopian tubes may be covered with endometriomas or scar tissue from previous miscarriages.
    • Stage IV (severe): Your ovaries are filled with tumors and cysts, some of which are very big. Depending on the extent of your surgery, you may have scar tissue on your ovaries, fallopian tubes, or in the bottom portion of your digestive tract.
      There is no consideration for pain or other symptoms in the phases. Stage I endometriosis, for example, may be very painful, while stage IV endometriosis may present no symptoms at all.

    Treatment Options

    Surgery or medicine are often used in the course of treatment. A variety of therapies may be required before you discover the one that makes you feel better.

    • Pain medicine: In certain cases, prescription pain medication is all you need. Ibuprofen, Motrin, and naproxen (Aleve), as well as other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), are effective for many individuals. Other alternatives may be available if these don’t help.
    • Hormones: It is possible to stop your menstruation with hormonal treatment since it reduces the quantity of estrogen your body produces. Because the bleeding from lesions is reduced, there is less inflammation, scarring, and the development of cysts as a result of this treatment. Hormones include the following:
      • Oral contraceptive pills, vaginal patches, or vaginal rings
      • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists such as elagolix sodium (Orilissa) or leuprolide (Lupron)
      • Progestin-only contraceptives
      • Danazol (Danocrine)
      • Surgery: Depending on the extent of the damage, your doctor may suggest surgery to remove the infected tissue. Surgery may alleviate symptoms and increase your chances of becoming pregnant in certain instances. An endoscope or conventional surgery with bigger incisions may be used by your physician. After surgery, it’s not uncommon for pain to return.

      If your symptoms are severe, you may need a hysterectomy, in which your ovaries, uterus, and cervix are removed. However, you will be unable to get pregnant in the future if you do not have them.

      Conclusion

      Endometriosis is a debilitating disease. However, this does not imply that your everyday life would be affected as a result of the illness. Medication, hormone therapy, and surgery are all effective ways to address pain and reproductive problems. After menopause, endometriosis symptoms often improve. For further information, you may reach out to our specialists via phone or email.

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