Endometrial Cancer | Uterine Cancer | ONP Hospitals
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Endometrial Cancer

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    Overview

    The uterine lining (endometrium) is where endometrial cancer develops. Cancer of the uterus is sometimes referred to as endometrial cancer. In addition to endometrial cancer, the uterus may be affected by uterine sarcoma, however, this kind of cancer is far less prevalent.

    Because of irregular vaginal bleeding, endometrial cancer is generally diagnosed at an early stage. The uterus may be removed surgically to treat endometrial cancer if it is identified early.

    When it comes to gynecological cancer, endometrial carcinoma is the most frequent. Every year, over 50,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with the condition.

    Everything You Need To Know About Endometrial Cancer

    What is It?

    The uterus, the hollow, pear-shaped organ in which a fetus develops, may be affected by cancer. The endometrium is the tissue that covers the inside of the uterus. Endometrial cancer occurs when the lining of the uterus is invaded by cancerous cells. Endometrial cancer accounts for the majority of uterine cancers.

    Endometrial cancer can spread to the bladder or rectum, or the vagina, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and other distant organs if it is left untreated. Fortunately, endometrial cancer develops slowly and is typically discovered before it has gone too far by frequent examinations.

    Causes

    Endometrial cancer is still a mystery to doctors. The endometrium – the lining of the uterus — is thought to undergo a process that results in alterations (mutations) in the DNA of cells.

    Normal cells are transformed into abnormal ones by the mutation. At a certain pace, healthy cells proliferate and ultimately die. Unlike healthy cells, abnormal cells do not die at a predetermined period. A mass of malignant tumors is formed. Invading adjacent tissues, cancer cells may then move to other parts of the body (metastasize).

    Risk Factors

    Endometrial cancer is associated with several risk factors, including:

    • Changes in the balance of female hormones in the body: The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, two of the most important female hormones. The endometrium changes as a result of changes in the balance of these hormones.

    Endometrial cancer is more likely to occur if your body produces more estrogen than progesterone, but not the other way around. Some examples include polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Endometrial cancer is more likely to develop in women who use estrogen-only hormones after menopause.

    Endometrial cancer risk may be increased by a rare kind of ovarian tumor that secretes estrogen.

    • More years of menstruation: When women begin menstruating before the age of 12 or enter menopause later in life, they are at greater risk of developing endometrial cancer. For every additional period, your endometrium is exposed to more estrogen.
    • Never having been pregnant: Endometrial cancer is more common in women who have never given birth than in women who have given birth at least once.
    • Older age: Endometrial cancer is more common as you become older. After menopause, women are more likely to develop endometrial cancer.
    • Obesity: Endometrial cancer is more common in obese women. This may be due to an imbalance in your body’s hormones caused by obesity.
    • Hormone therapy for breast cancer: The risk of endometrial cancer may rise if a woman takes tamoxifen for breast cancer treatment. Take your doctor’s advice and discuss this risk if you are taking tamoxifen. Tamoxifen’s advantages far exceed the minor risk of endometrial cancer for the vast majority of women.

    Symptoms

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most prevalent sign of endometrial cancer. This might include, but is not limited to:

    • Changes in the duration or heaviness of menstrual periods
    • Between menstrual cycles, there is vaginal bleeding or spotting.
    • Vaginal bleeding after menopause

    Endometrial cancer may cause other symptoms, such as:

    • Vaginal discharge that is blood- or water-tinged
    • Lower abdominal or pelvic pain
    • Coitus induced pain

    Treatments

    Individuals suffering from endometrial cancer may benefit from any combination of the following treatments.

    • Surgery: There are a variety of surgical procedures available, including as
    • Hysterectomy – Remove the uterus with surgery.
    • Salpingo-oophorectomy – Procedure to remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
    • Pelvic lymph node dissection – Excision of a few lymph nodes from the lower abdomen.
    • Para-aortic lymphadenectomy – A procedure to remove the lymph nodes that surround and protect the coronary artery.
    • Laparoscopic lymph node sampling – Excision of lymph nodes using a laparoscope, a tiny viewing tube placed via an abdominal incision.
    • Sentinel lymph node mapping – Using fluorescence imaging to discover lymph nodes that may otherwise go undiagnosed as malignant.
    • Radiation therapy: The application of X-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles in the treatment of cancer. Brachytherapy and external beam radiation are the most often utilized radiation treatments to treat endometrial cancer, with external beam radiation being the most prevalent. Improved patient outcomes and fewer side effects are possible with novel approaches in image-based brachytherapy under the supervision of directed magnetic resonance (MR).
    • Chemotherapy: Treatment of malignant cells using anti-cancer medicines.
    • Immunotherapy: Activate the body’s inherent potential to combat cancer by stimulating the immune system.
    • Hormone therapy: Hormone-disrupting drugs or surgical interventions.

    Conclusion

    If you are experiencing symptoms that might be indicative of endometrial cancer or another gynecological issue, schedule an appointment with your doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment may assist to improve your long-term prognosis if you are diagnosed and treated early.

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