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Fistula

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    Fistula

    Overview

    An anal fistula is a passage that goes from within the anus (the opening in your anatomy that your body generates of organic waste) to someplace in the skin around it. It frequently occurs after an illness that did not cure properly. The doctor can repair the fistula, but it will require surgery.

    Everything You Need To Know About Fistula

    What Exactly Is A Fistula?

    An anal fistula is a short tunnel that links an infection, a hollow in the anus that is diseased, to a skin hole around the abdomen.

    The external orifice via which feces are discharged from the body is known as the anus. Several tiny glands that produce mucus are located just within the anus. These tissues can occasionally develop blocked and infected, resulting in an abscess. A fistula can form in around half of these infections.

    What causes an anal fistula?

    Clogged anal glandular and anal infections are the most common causes of an anal fistula. The following less prevalent conditions can also cause an abdominal fistula:

    • Crohn’s syphilis is a bacterial bowel illness.
    • Cancer therapy necessitates the use of radiation.
    • Trauma
    • STIs (sexually transmitted infections)
    • Tuberculosis
    • Diverticulitis is an inflammatory illness in which tiny pouches develop in the large intestine.
    • Cancer

    What Do The Signs And Symptoms Of A Perineal Fistula Look Like?

    An anal fistula has the following signs and symptoms:

    • Anal abscesses are common.
    • Swelling and pain around the anus
    • Drainage (pus) from a hole surrounding the anus that is bloody or foul-smelling. After the fistula empties, the discomfort may subside.
    • Contact dermatitis around the anus due to drainage
    • Constipation causes pain.
    • Bleeding
    • Nausea, cramps, and an overall sense of exhaustion
    • If you observe any of these indications, you should consult your doctor.

    Treatment

    An anal fistula is generally diagnosed by examining the region surrounding the anus. He or she will search the skin for an aperture (the fistula tract). The doctor will then attempt to assess the depth of the track as well as its direction of travel. There will be discharged from the gutter in many circumstances.

    Some fistulas are not noticeable on the surface of the skin. In this instance, your doctor may need to order the following tests:

    1. An anoscopy is a technique that involves looking inside your anus and rectum using a specific device.
    2. Your doctor may order ultrasonography or MRI of the anal region to acquire a better image of the fistula canal.
    3. To identify the fistula, your surgeon may need to evaluate you in the operating room (known as an exam under anesthesia).

    If a fistula is discovered, your doctor may order more testing to evaluate if the problem is connected to Crohn’s disease, an autoimmune disease illness. Fistulas occur in around 25% of persons with Psoriatic arthritis. These investigations included a variety of assays, including blood testing, X-rays, and colonoscopies. A gastroenterologist is a procedure that includes passing flexible, lighted equipment through the rectum into the intestine. It’s done using procedural sedation, which is a sort of mild anesthetic.

    Surgery

    Anal fistulas are usually typically treated with surgery. A colon and rectal surgeon administer the procedure. The purpose of the procedure is to strike a balance between removing the fistula and maintaining the anal throat muscles, which, if injured, might lead to incontinence.

    • A fistulotomy is known to cure fistulas with no or minimal diaphragm muscle participation. The skin and tendon above the tunnel are sliced open to change it from a trench to an open channel in this surgery. The fistula tract can then repair from the bottom-up approach.
    • In the event of a more complicated fistula, the physician may need to use a seton, which must be left in place for at least 6 weeks.
    • The fistula is covered by a flap or piece of material removed from the rectum, similar to a trap door or advanced flap surgery.
    • The epidermis above the fistula is opened up, the spasm muscles are stretched, and the funnel is tied up during a lift treatment.
    • Injecting progenitor cells into the fistula is a novel therapy for Crohn’s disease fistulas. Before the procedure, your pediatric ophthalmologist will go through all of your choices with you.

    Fistula surgery is often performed as an outpatient procedure, meaning the patient can return home the same day. Patients with big or deep fistula excavations may need to stay in the hospital following surgery for a while. Some fistulas may need many operations.

    Conclusion

    Any infection caused by the fistula may be treated with antibiotics or other medications. Currently, there is no medicinal way to eliminate fistulas. While fistulas are a major threat to your health, the high success rate of medication should urge you or even someone you know who has fistulas to get care right away.

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