Cervical Cancer - Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment | ONP Hospitals
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Cervical Cancer

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    Overview

    The 5-year relative survival rate for women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer at an early stage is above 90%. Cervical cancer has a 5-year relative survival rate of roughly 68 percent. The rate is based on the total number of cancer stages.

    Everything You Need To Know About Cervical Cancer

    What is It?

    Cervical cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the cells of the cervix, which links the uterus to the vaginal canal. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas are the two most common kinds of cervical cancer. Squamous cell carcinomas account for 80 to 90% of the cases, whereas adenocarcinomas account for 10 to 20%.

    Causes

    For cervical cancer to form, healthy cells in the cervix must undergo DNA alterations. The instructions that a cell follows are included in its DNA.

    At a certain pace, healthy cells proliferate and ultimately die. As a result of mutations, cells continue to grow and replicate uncontrollably. A mass of abnormal cells is formed (tumor). A tumor’s cancerous cells may infect neighboring tissues and then spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

    HPV has been shown to have a role in the development of cervical cancer. A large number of persons infected with HPV do not go on to get cancer. If you’re at risk of developing cervical cancer, you’ll need to take into account more than just your genetics.

    Risk Factors

    Many recognized risk factors for cervical cancer may be connected to the condition. Some risks can be avoided, while others cannot. Consider the following as potential dangers:

    • An irregular screening history: Cervical cancer is more common in women who haven’t had frequent Pap tests (smears).
    • HPV Infection: In certain cases, the cervix may be infected by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is mostly linked to HPV infection in the cervix. A tiny number of women who are infected with HPV and do not get treatment may develop cervical cancer, though.
    • Sexual History: Cervical cancer is more likely to strike women under the age of 16 who have had several sexual partners or who have had a history of early sexual activity. Cervical cancer may be prevented by preventing sexually transmitted illnesses.
    • Smoking: Cigarette smoking raises the risk of cervical cancer.
    • HIV Infection: Cervical cancer is more common in women who have been infected with HIV.

    Symptoms

    When cervical cancer is advanced, you may not notice any signs at all. There are several possibilities:

    • When you’re having sex, it hurts.
    • After intercourse, between cycles, after menopause, or after a pelvic exam, abnormal vaginal bleeding may occur
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge

    Cancer that has spread may cause:

    • Pelvic ache
    • Trouble urinating
    • Swollen legs
    • Kidney ailment
    • Bone ache
    • Loss of appetite and weight loss
    • Fatigue

    Prevention

    As a preventative measure, you can:

    • Ask your doctor about the HPV vaccine: Cervical cancer and other HPV-related malignancies may be reduced if you get a vaccine against HPV infection. Consult with your doctor to see whether you should get an HPV vaccination.
    • Have routine Pap tests: Precancerous abnormalities in the cervix may be detected by Pap tests, which can then be monitored or treated to avoid cervical cancer. Routine Pap tests should begin at the age of 21 and be repeated every few years, according to most medical organizations.
    • Practice safe sex: Use a condom at all times and limit the number of sexual partners you have to reduce your risk of cervical cancer.
    • Don’t smoke: Stop smoking if you don’t already. Inquire with your doctor about the best way to quit smoking.

    Treatments

    Invasive cervical cancer is often treated with surgery and radiation therapy. Other treatments include chemotherapy and biological therapies.

    • Surgery

    With treatments like LEEP or cold knife conization, your doctor may remove or eliminate the malignant cells on the surface of your cervix.

    To remove malignant cells from the basement membrane, you’ll need to undergo a hysterectomy, which is a kind of hysterectomy. Your cervix may be surgically removed if the illness has gotten into the cervix’s deeper layers but has not spread elsewhere in your body.

    Your doctor may recommend a hysterectomy if cancer has progressed to your uterus.

    • Radiation Therapy

    High-energy rays are used in radiation treatment (also known as radiotherapy) to destroy cancer cells and prevent their proliferation. Radiation only affects cancer cells in the targeted location, like surgery. Depending on the nature of your therapy, it may be either external or internal.

    • Chemotherapy

    Drugs like chemotherapy are used to destroy cancer cells. Cervical cancer that is locally progressed or has spread to other regions of the body is often treated using this method.

    There are times of intense treatment followed by intervals of recuperation in chemotherapy. At an outpatient clinic at the hospital, at your doctor’s office, or even in your house, most people get it.

    • Immunotherapy

    To trigger an immune response, biological treatment or immunotherapy focuses on the checkpoints in your immune cells. Tumors may be reduced or slowed in growth with the use of a drug called pembrolizumab.

    If chemo isn’t working or cancer has spread, doctors use it. Every three weeks, you’ll be given intravenous, or IV, medication.

    Conclusion

    For cervical cancer, the death rate has decreased significantly. It was formerly the most deadly cancer for women but currently ranks 14th. Early detection and prevention are the foundation of this extraordinary success story.

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